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Report Your Data Accurately

Readers of your article rely on you to communicate your research findings fully and report your data accurately. Ensure you are showing the full picture by avoiding fabrication, falsification, and image manipulation during your research and when you are writing or revising your article.


  • Fabrication: inventing data or results
  • Falsification: manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results¹
  • Image manipulation: excessive or inappropriate adjustment of an image that alters the scientific meaning of the image

¹The Office of Research Integrity, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

 IEEE Collabratec